Teaching Philosophy

The philosophical axis of this work is the ‘out of comfort zone’ condition, and the purpose of it is freedom of expression. The exercise I suggest is called ‘Reverse Dramaturgy’, and it is a reverse dramaturgical process and a study on the Architecture of Relationships.

Till freedom becomes the only comfort zone.



Physics: Potential energy and kinetic energy co-existing in a body always ready to move. When the body stands, it doesn’t stop. It balances on an axis that goes from the center of the Earth to the center of the Universe. You can consider this to be either wrong physics or meta-physics.

Architecture: Relationships can define characters through a simple shape and a clear axis between two or more people. 

Grammar is responsible for the musicality in spoken word.

Music consists of Rhythm, Melody and Harmony, which is everything.



In this class, every and any umbilical cord associated with social syndromes, forms of society, rules, prejudices, methods and techniques is dismissed, in order to provide space for the creation of a ‘personalized form’ for the performer, based on their timing, perspective and personal need in regards to expression.

Give no more directions to the artists. Let them do it their way.

In this class, we will create space for a non-form, a non-technique, which is only interrelated to that which will arise, after the actor has understood in depth the meaning of the words through Grammar, Syntax and Etymology, which are, more or less, the roots of language itself and the structural nature of language, as it was born and formatted, when humanity first started responding to the purest need in the history of needs; the need for communication. 

This new form is truth – always new, always unique. It is not about intelligence. It is about wisdom.

Language is the proof of the need for evolution and the consequence of it. 

But, it was never about words, sentences and paragraphs.
The truth of the story is what will set every performer free, making room for them to be a perfect ‘delivery vessel’, a vessel that knows nothing. And this is the magnificence of the performer’s actual status. 

They didn’t come on stage because they know, but in order to explore and discover.

The art of acting is a living organism that evolves along with human expression; 

Verbal communication is only the first level of communication in a civilized world. Nonverbal communication is the rest of it. 

Now, let’s agree on this; throughout life, we’re dealing with conscious and subconscious behaviors. One is filtered behaviors (culture) and the rest is what people would act like if there would be no fear (spirituality => freedom). 



Choose freedom or freedom will choose you, eventually.

Ask your body, not your mind. The body cannot lie. Stay centered.

Comfort zone is the state where one feels comfortable and safe enough to take no responsibility about anything for as much as it takes. Remember the first and only comfort zone you have ever been inside. It is the womb itself, where you did not have to worry about eating or even breathing. Someone else was doing everything for you.

The cutting of the umbilical cord between the mother and the newly born baby has been the most violent incident ever happened to any human being, while, concurrently, this has been the first literate moment for the possibility of freedom.

Human existence balances between fear of loneliness and the possibility of freedom.
Where there is fear, there is no possibility of freedom. Where there is no fear, what’s left is freedom.

So, the miracle of birth, is not so much about the actual fact of birth, but mostly about how you choose to nurture a baby, after you’ve given birth to them. Come on, it’s not that philosophical! Ok, maybe just a bit..

The first moment where the body experiences loneliness is the exact moment the body is born, which, by the way, is also the first second of freedom, after the cutting of the umbilical cord. I’m just saying that, maybe, this could be the neurological reason why breaking a pattern and freeing oneself from the the brink of the abyss of comfort zones is not easy at all.

It’s true that no body can live with no comfort zones, so, once again, the comfort zone I’m referring to is the one that obstructs evolution, expression, freedom.

Freedom as the only comfort zone is another expression for ‘Freedom of Chaos’. This is where I’m inviting you to. The absolute exposure. This is a very interesting condition to create in and probably the most productive environment for a body to be in, as the survival instinct takes the lead. Do you have a stronger argument than that? Now, imagine an actor on stage led by those kind of instincts.



A pattern is a repeated behavioral act. A sequence of actions that happen at least once, make a potential pattern. A sequence of acts that happen at least twice make a pattern, already.

Recognize the patterns. You’ve seen them before, you know them well, they have been there for quite a long time, repeating themselves in circles as life goes on, waiting for you to let them in or even letting themselves in, whenever you are most off-center and afraid, when overthinking has set you weak and insecure.

Recognize the patterns and break them.
Insecurity creates the need for a performer to rather be in comfort zone, follow the steps of an acting method or technique they’ve been taught so as to express themselves, in order to feel “safe” on stage. But, this is just another trap that keeps you away from your center, that weakens your instinct, that takes your true voice away. Add technique to your values, instead of setting technique as your values. Technique is there to assist you express your values. Let method boost the instinct. If not this way, then you might feel safe, but it’s not you.


Some of the most easily recognizable characteristics of a pattern while performing, is the rhythm and the musicality of the speech, the choreography of the body, as well as, the rhythmique of the breath. Feel the beat and break the pattern right at the moment it starts to feel familiar and puts you in a comfort zone. This applies to both, body and speech. Break the rhythm, break the pattern.

“Insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results”, said Einstein.

So, if you find yourself trapped in a character, trying to express yourself through a certain form over and over again and it doesn’t feel nice, break the pattern, break the rhythm. Breathe, pause, reset, listen to the flow and continue. But, whatever you do, don’t stop breathing. 

Stay connected to the flow. Be the flow.

When you understand the mechanism of a pattern, when you figure out how a pattern works, you can explain life. And this is as specific as it gets.



This is about the miracle of music. It is about the use of music as a tool to attain the largest understanding of speech in terms of Rhythm, Melody and Harmony.

Let’s work with speech and music in parallel action. What happens when music stops, having already generously given the actor its functions? The actor now becomes a mature creator, a maestro who conducts speech, words and phrases, bringing in thousands of different versions of expressing oneself through the truth of musicality and the flow of freedom. 

Organic speech is a musical and full of frequencies speech – even in silence. Organic body is a dancing body – even in stillness.

Music is now here to remind to the rhetoric all the functions that spoken word has always had: Rhythm, Melody, Harmony.

Musicality pre-existing in words. Let it be revealed.

Music is everything.




Musicality is a symptom of the performer’s accurate delivery of what was written – no less than that. The performer is responsible for being a great connoisseur of Grammar. Putative links, time adverbs, adjectives, question marks, negations, commas, periods, exclamation points, the vowels and consonants. They’re all there, already.

All that the actor needs to know, is on the paper, already written.
Tell the story. Truthfully. Literally. As it was written.

Grammar is responsible for the musicality in spoken word. A performer is responsible for being a great connoisseur of Grammar.

If you’re missing musicality, apply Grammar.



This class is an exercise about freedom of expression and an educational task about breaking free of all the behavioral patterns and comfort zones that obstruct expression.

‘Reverse Dramaturgy’ is an exercise about the revelation of the character through the relationship.

The approach of the relationship happens through the condition of dialogue between the characters, in order for the characters to reveal themselves and for their unique structural and behavioral traits to blossom.

It is a Reverse Dramaturgical Analysis and Approach, where the performer won’t get in the on-stage relationship obeying to all the characteristics that the theatrical condition suggests nor will they walk according to the theatrical forms that “make sense” due to the genre, era etc. of the theatrical, musical, dance or so act.

We won’t “get in the shoes of the character” to find the core of the relationships within the scene or the play.

The performers will walk on stage naked and clean from all the pre-decided characteristics and behavioral elements of the role, in order for them to witness their own revelation by engaging to the relationships through dialogue. That’s how the story will be delivered better.

This revelation will “dress the performer up” with all that the here, the now suggests

Relationships can define characters through a simple shape and a clear axis between two or more people. It’s all about perspective. It’s about the Architecture of Relationships.

A unique characteristic of this exercise is the verbal overlap I’m suggesting during the dialogue, trying to eliminate the time of reaction for the participants. The performers are “forced” to affect and get affected by each other, until they listen and tune in. This is based on the “Forced Oscillation” field in physics, which results to the tuning of the objects that are parts of the oscillating system – the relationship.



The dialogue within the monologue is unveiled.
There are no monologues. Everything is a dialogue.

Feedback is inevitable.

Dialogue is the symptom of the relationship. The relationship is the subject – the main and only concern for the performer.


There is no such thing as “my first line” or “I start speaking first” and so on.

Everything is a continuum, a result of constant feedback. Time was before and will be after.
You are part of the flow, as everything is part of the flow. There is no beginning or end.

My answer to the question: “When does a performance begin?”, is that: “It has already began.”

What has been written on the paper is ‘the answers’. Ask a question for every line of your text, which is every ‘answer’ you need to deliver. Attach your speech to the need that a question creates; the need for an answer. 

Don’t bring up lines that come out of your mouth as announcements, as words and phrases that have no roots, that there was never a need for them to be expressed and spoken out. Speak because there is a question to be answered, so that your words are answers to a request, always.

Whenever you feel off-center, you’ve probably answered to the wrong question or no question.


The annihilation of the ego shall set the basis for this work. Knowledge visits the actor who needs to tell the truth every moment.

For society, humility is a sign of weakness. 

For Humanity, it is the basis for creation.

The actor will become the perfect medium to transfer the text from the two dimensions of the paper to the three – the least – dimensions of the story.

This is not about acting. It’s about freedom of expression.



Let the body show you the way. Overthinking is the enemy of the instincts.

Modern Western societies suffer from thinking too much. Overthinking becomes an obstacle between the delivering body – the free body – and the audience.

Do nothing. Let the body show you the way. 

In this class, I’m trying to eliminate the reaction time. This is clearly applied also in the “Reverse Dramaturgy” exercise.

Actors often feel that they have to do “something” or be “someone”, on stage. Actors often complain that once they have achieved to speak in freedom, they felt as if they were not doing much or even that they were doing nothing. This is exactly the point: Nothingness. 

Being is reacting to the moment. Being without having to do anything. Not because what is there is enough. But, because it is complete.

You don’t have to say anything because Shakespeare wrote it and it’s your turn to speak.
Listen carefully and according to the frequencies you are going to find, see if there is any frequency missing there, for you to put in. If there is nothing you really see or hear missing, give it some space. Give it some silence.

Do nothing. Let the ‘intelligence’ of the body lead you. Stay open. Re-act. Deliver.

Pause is definitely same material as speech and movement. Don’t be afraid to pause.

Again, organic speech is a musical and full of frequencies speech – even in silence. Organic body is a dancing body – even in stillness.

While the mind tends to live through the guilt of the past, predicting the catastrophe of the future, the body can only be in ‘the here, the now’. The body can only be in ‘the here, the now’.

There is a calling, always. Listen to it and re-act accordingly.



First, we breathe.

Inhaling air, exhaling sound, words, speech, melodies.

Let’s apply organic speaking. Let’s invest in the flow of breath.

In the beginning there was air and then there was speech. The most minute amount of air is sufficient to cause vibration to the vocal cords and produce sound. If there is no air, there is no sound.

Why push words, reactions, feelings, when we can just exhale them?

This way, the actor will delve into the understanding of the fact, that spoken word is a result of the breath itself.

Sound as a result of the air. Air becomes sound, speech.
Speech as a need to exhale words, speech as a sigh.

Breathe in air, exhale words.

Your voice is the lightest thing on you.

Don’t push the words out. You only need to breathe in. Then, you’ll exhale your words, inevitably. Let it happen. I know I’m repeating myself now, but I do have an important point I want to make clear: Let the air do the job.

Breathe and, by the way, speak.
Speak as you breathe. Don’t breathe as you speak.

Don’t try to pronounce the words. Exhale them.

Also, If you lose your flow on stage, invest on breathing. When you feel off-centered, go back to breathing. When you make a mistake, keep breathing. When you fail to do the exercise, don’t forget to breathe. Breathe till the end of the world. Breathing will keep you alive and tuned.



Understanding rhythm as an axis, as a constant, as the in relation to, as the here, the now.
Time was before, and will be after. 

Be with time. Synchronized. Together. Not faster, not slower. Synchronized. With time.
Be the flow.
Stay open. Stay centered.

Every act is part of a continuum. Stay tuned. Be synchronized.
 • syn = with, together, in Greek –> συν
 • chronized comes from chronostime in Greek –> χρόνος.
 Synchronized = With Time.

Quiz (sort of): If you’re not sure whether you managed to “become Time” or not, just see if you can stand silence. Can you?



There are no starting points. Just a continuum called “the flow”.

Even if you stop speaking, even if you stop moving, Time will keep moving forward. 

You are the flow. You are Time.

As you start speaking, you ..just start speaking, not existing.
Think of “start”, “action”, “go” as “continue”

Don’t cut the flow to begin the flow. It doesn’t make sense. Just continue. Keep breathing, listen, take everything into consideration and we take it from there. 

Whatever you do, don’t stop breathing. Don’t hold your breath thinking what your next move is, as you’ve probably just blocked your next move. The only way for the flow to cut is when one stops breathing. Don’t hold your breath. It’s unnatural and this the 21st century.

Life and on stage existence as one channel of creativity.

Let’s liberate the story and allow the need to become the basis of the narrative again. Let’s disengage from a specific perception of forms that emerged in theater through artificial cultural needs. Let’s reconnect cinema, theater, music, dance, poetry, expression with life.



Speaking the words that the writer/dramaturge wrote, like they’re yours. As if you’re writing them now, as if they’re coming out of your mouth as a result of a need that equals survival. I’m not speaking about anything more than the everyday life and the everyday needs. Just think of the moment you have to go to the bathroom and do your need. You’ll either do it or you’re in big trouble. If what brought you on stage was less than that, then it was not a need. 

This is the same need that made the dramaturge compose the play you call a masterpiece and chose to deliver today.

Create as you deliver.

This is about taking all the responsibility of a perfect delivery. You become a co-dramaturge, either you choose it or not. If a chef creates a great recipe and the server takes it to the costumer an hour later, it is no longer a great recipe, but only a cold plate that was supposed to be eaten hot. Be time and that’s what it takes for you to be a great delivery vessel.

Trust your neurons, trust that the mind already knows every word of the text, as you have been rehearsing on it for hours, days, maybe months. 

Still, speak through a body that knows nothing, a body always ready to discover, to move forward. That’s the dramaturgical vessel that you are.




If you can’t speak your words, dance them. And vice versa.




Everyone is part of the project.

Ludwig Wittgenstein asked: “If I’m singing and nobody listens, am I singing?”

The audience and the performer are in a constant dialogue giving feedback to each other. Even in cinema, considering the audience absent while shooting a film is not a valid thought. A spectacle is valid only when seen. A sonic fact is valid when it’s heard. An artistic product is valid when it’s presented in front of an audience. The audience is not there to judge – not anymore. Everyone is there for the experience – the Duende. To share, to give feedback, to continue the dialogue. It’s a relationship.

The audience is part of the Dramaturgy. 



The performance as a result of teamwork. Think project, not role. Feel the heartbeat of one body, the project.

Don’t be jealous. Don’t be alone. Being jealous is the most obvious sign of fear.
We own nothing. 



When you achieve a good delivery in your performance with freedom and truth, you’ll feel its greatness. The most common reaction then, is trying to find a way to capture this, thinking about all the “right” moves that brought you to that and so on. But, you know what: you cannot capture freedom, as this would be the ultimate tragic irony of our fate. Also, you cannot repeat truth, as truth is always new, always unique. Truth is now.

Freedom is your 100% choice. It’s complete. It’s real. 

Stay open and be generous to yourself. 

A mother told me once: “If I could keep my baby inside me for ever, this is what I would do.” The next morning she was scheduled to deliver her baby to this world.

When you give birth to a child, is it because you’d rather keep it there on your lap for ever, to be yours and safe? You understand, though, that this is a way to kill a living soul, not to bring it to life, in light.



The game is about moving forward, no matter what. Falling down is definitely part of the game. Sometimes, the lesson one learns from failing is vastly more important than any type of success. Trying to be a good student, you’ll do anything to avoid failing. And you might, indeed, make it today. That sounds like too much stress here. Allow yourself to do a mistake or a hundred. Let the mistake lead you. 


Success is not some peak one must reach. If that’s the case with life, then good luck with peaks. This totally sounds like Westernism in its lamest. A constant contest about, more or less, everything. Life is about the game, not about the peak. The game involves failure and success as different stages of moving forward. It’s a win-win situation. Think about it.

If your aim is success itself, you may fail, as well.

But this exercise about freedom of expression, succeeds right at the moment you choose to be involved. 

The exact moment you find yourself standing in the center of the circle, this is already a success. There’s only one way for this exercise to fail: to fall down and stay down. 

To accept failure and get it over with this thing that’s called freedom of expression. 

That being said, the flow is your one and only choice. 

There’s no other choice.

Because: LIFE. 



The term ‘result’ is a bit old for the 21st century. While you were bothering about the result, iPhone 19 has just launched. 

Stay here, stay now. Don’t get trapped in the future. You cannot predict any result neither during the rehearsal nor on stage. 

What will be, will result from the unconditional involvement of the actor with the telling of the story. All that the actor should care about is the exercise, the functions, not the result. Even in the performance. Especially then.

Don’t fall in the trap of pre-deciding the mood or the attitude of the character, describing their feelings and all the sentimental and psychological layers. Don’t worry about feelings. Feelings cannot be pre-decided, regardless.

Interact with the here, the now.

Just follow the words and the needs created by the words themselves, and you have it all. Deliver now. Do the exercise. You’ll see the result in a video later on.

The era, which is progressing faster than ever, invites us to draw no more conclusions and make no more theories. Let’s stay open for all the updates and upgrades it has to propose to us every second.



Dare to make mistakes, as many as you can.
If the was no mistake, there would be no evolution in Humanity.

Evolution as a result of mistakes. 

A mistake in society is a reason for punishment. A mistake in Humanity is one step before a lesson is to be learnt. One step before evolution.

In this class, the “good student” is not the one trying to be right, but the most involved one. 

Focus on the exercise. Stay open to see the lesson.

Let the mistakes happen, leave space for them to show you the way, to reveal the need.



Self-observation may point and reveal whatever your stage presence needs to borrow from your presence in life. What would you like to borrow from your life? Which functions? What is it that you mostly miss from yourself on stage?

Art and life as one channel. Borrow from life, not art.

Stay open. Let the truth reveal.



Nakedness and not wearing clothes are not the same thing. 
One is freedom. The other is guilt.


We live in the era of the creators. The performer as a creator.

Nonetheless, the nature of every human being is to create, to give birth.



In this class, you are the Teacher. You lead. Show me your vision, where you’re aiming at and I’ll assist you accordingly. You lead, though. Always.

All the responsibility is yours, all the choices, all the failure, all the success. This is the world I’m talking about. #out_of_comfort_zone

Labros Filippou
Teacher of Drama and Stage Performance

Greek born / NYC based

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